A Quick Introduction to DNS

Published by Sohhom on

Introduction to DNS

DNS, or the Domain Name System, might sound highly technical, but its essence is easy to understand. Remember the process of trying to navigate to a new destination — you would plug the address into your trusty GPS device and voilà, turn by turn, it would direct you to your destination. DNS achieves something similar, albeit within the realm of internet communication. If you have ever wondered how your device knows which website to display when you type a web address, grab a cup of coffee, settle in and let’s unravel the mystery behind DNS.

Going Beyond the Acronyms: What is DNS?

The Domain Name System (DNS) is often dubbed as the ‘internet’s phonebook’. It acts as a fundamental part of how the internet operates by translating human-friendly domain names (e.g. www.example.com) into computer-friendly IP addresses (e.g. These IP addresses are essential, as they act as a unique identifier for each device connected to the internet, and determine the exact routing of requested information.

Domain Names & IP Addresses: The Connection

Simply put, a domain name is how we remember a website, and an IP address is how computers identify it. Think of the domain name as a contact name in your smartphone and the IP address as the actual phone number behind it. It would be extremely cumbersome to memorize phone numbers for all of our contacts. Similarly, our brains aren’t wired to efficiently remember those long strings of numbers, called IP addresses, for every website. The DNS makes it simple by translating these IP addresses into user-friendly domain names.

The Inner Workings of DNS

Imagine that you’re using your browser to access www.example.com. Here’s what happens step by step:

  1. Your device sends a query to a DNS resolver to request the IP address for the domain www.example.com.
  2. If the resolver has the IP address cached in its memory, it will return it, and the process ends here.
  3. If not, the resolver forwards your query to a DNS root server, which contains information about Top Level Domains (TLDs) like .com, .org, .net, etc.
  4. The root server redirects the resolver to the TLD server responsible for .com domains.
  5. The TLD server provides the resolver with the address of the authoritative DNS server for example.com.
  6. Lastly, the authoritative DNS server returns the IP address for www.example.com.
  7. Your device uses that IP address to establish a connection and load the desired website.

Why Do We Need DNS?

DNS plays a crucial role in maintaining the ubiquitous nature of the internet. Not only does it store and manage the IP addresses associated with domain names, but it also simplifies the process of web address translation for users. Without DNS, we would be left to memorize lengthy IP addresses for every website we visit, making internet browsing both daunting and unapproachable.


DNS is the unsung hero working tirelessly behind the scenes to ensure we get to our digital destinations with ease. An integral part of the internet’s infrastructure, the DNS paves the way for seamless communication between humans and machines, making the digital world more accessible and user-friendly. Now that you’ve mastered the basics of DNS, go forth and browse with newfound appreciation!

Categories: Core Concepts